Anderson struck early in the day, luring KL Rahul into a booming drive and edging Jos Buttler.
The wicket of Kohli in the 11th over sparked Anderson’s ire.
Once again, the record-breaking wicket-taker for England roared with joy.
With Ajinkya Rahane (18) caught behind with the final ball before lunch, Anderson’s stint ended.
In need of a counter-attack, Rishabh Pant (2) wafted at a wide delivery from Robinson and edged behind for Buttler’s sixth catch of the day.
His catch against India in 2014 made him just the second wicketkeeper to do it.
He was caught at mid-on trying to pull off a bouncer from Overton.
The tail that had waggled so well at Lord’s was quickly defeated in Leeds, as four Indian wickets fell in six balls without a run being scored.
Then Sam Curran lbw Ravindra Jadeja (4) and Jasprit Bumrah lbw in quick succession.
A brilliant catch at first slip by Joe Root removed Mohammed Siraj and gave Overton his third wicket, ending India’s dismal first innings in little over an hour.
Burns and Hameed were the home side’s 22nd different opening combination since Sir Andrew Strauss retired in 2012, and they batted through to tea with little fuss and no controversy.
He seemed more comfortable in his maiden home Test innings as an opener, guarding firmly and hitting some stunning offside drives.
India’s spinners improved after lunch, beating the edge a few times, but England’s openers stood strong, breaking with recent trend.
A Hameed boundary in the 32nd over gave England the lead after the pair had passed 50.
English bowlers had not lost a wicket since the 2010/11 Ashes series in Melbourne.
When Hameed edged a full delivery from Bumrah towards Rohit at second slip, the fielder went one-handed, the ball broke through and raced away for a boundary, taking Hameed to his third Test fifty from 110 balls, it was the only real chance of the England innings.
And in the final over of the day, Burns added his tenth Test half-century with a well-timed clip to midwicket, and Hameed gave the raucous Headingley fans their eleventh boundary.