In 2019, the 30-year-old represented the county in all formats of the game, collecting nine T20 wickets to help the Falcons reach Finals Day for the first time in their history.
Despite being born in New Zealand, he has represented the Netherlands in two one-day internationals and eight T20 matches.
He takes the place of Australian Billy Stanlake, who had a stress fracture in his back earlier this month.
“Logan’s has a wonderful attitude and he slotted right in during Derbyshire’s excellent Vitality Blast run in 2019,” said head of cricket Dave Houghton.
“Over the previous two seasons, he’s continued to improve his game, and trophies for his club in New Zealand, as well as a recall to the Netherlands team, are testaments to his progress.”
On the 9th and 11th of June, Derbyshire play away games against Lancashire and Leicestershire before hosting Birmingham Bears at the Incora County Ground on the 13th.
“I truly loved my first term with Derbyshire,” Van Beek added.
“In the Vitality Blast, we were able to achieve something amazing, and I’m eager to assist the side do it again.”